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8. adjectives

Neoslavonic adjectives are formed by adding endings (and sometimes also prefixes) to other words. They are inflected and have three genders in singular (plural is only one for all genders). Words are palatalized during adding these endings (e.g. kč, hš, gž).

The most used
endings (in the order m. f. n. pl.) are:
  • -sky, -ska, -ske, -ski. This is the most used ending aimed for general use.

    example: Rus, russky = Russian (noun), Russian (adj.)


  • -ij, -ija, -ije, -iji. This expresses some origin, in the way of meaning "ot + genitive" = "from somebody/something".

    example: bog, božij = God (noun), god, divine (adj.),
    niešto ot Boga jest božije = something from the God is divine.


  • -ov, -ova, -ovo, -ovi. This expresses some kind of an ownership by a masculine subject, in the way of meaning "genitive" = "of somebody/something".

    example: petrova kniga = Peter's book, book of Peter.


  • -in, -ina, -ino, -ini. This expresses some kind of an ownership by a feminine subject, in the way of meaning "genitive" = "of somebody/something".

    example: anina kniga = Anna's book, book of Anna.



  • -ny, -na, -ne, -ni. This expresses some source, in the way of meaning "iz + genitive" = "from somebody/something".

    example: železo, železny = iron (noun), iron (adj.),
    niešto iz železa jest železne = something from iron is from iron.


  • bez- -ny, bez- -na, bez- -ne, bez- -ni. This expresses some exclusion, in the way of meaning "bez + genitive" = "without somebody/something".

    example: meso, bezmesny = meat (noun), without meat (adj.), niešto bez mesa jest bezmesne = something without meat is without meat.


  • nad- -ny, nad- -na, nad- -ne, nad- -ni. This expresses some augmentation or elevation, in the way of meaning "nad + instrumental" = "above/super somebody/something".

    example: zemja, nadzemny = earth (noun), aerial, superterrestrial (adj.),
    niešto nad zemjej jest nadzemne = something above the Earth is aerial.

Of course, these endings can be combined as for example: petrovska orchestra (-ov + -ska) etc.



declension

Live Slavic languages ​​mostly use two patterns for the inflection of adjectives. Soft pattern and hard pattern. These patterns are very similar to the soft and hard patterns of pronoun inflection. In Neoslavonic it is very simplified in order to use only one pattern identical with the soft pronoun pattern. This simplification is possible, because all these declension patterns are mutually very similar and differ only in very details of vowels.

Of course, because the hard and soft pattern varies from each other only in vowels alterations, there is no problem to optionally use both declension patterns. To reminder, the vowels o and ie from the hard pronoun pattern corresponds to the vowels e and i in the soft pronoun pattern. (e.g. o↔e and iei).
For example: dobr-egodobr-ogo, ...

example 1: dobry = good


 masculine
 feminine  neuter  plural
 nominative
 dobr-y  dobr-a  dobr-e  dobr-i
 genitive  dobr-ego  dobr-ej  dobr-ego  dobr-ih
 dative  dobr-emu  dobr-ej  dobr-emu  dobr-im
 accusative  dobr-ego
 dobr-u  dobr-e  dobr-e
 vocative  dobr-y  dobr-a
 dobr-e
 dobr-i
 locative  dobr-em  dobr-ej  dobr-em  dobr-ih
 instrumental  dobr-im  dobr-ej  dobr-im  dobr-imi

example 2: sviežy = fresh


 masculine
 feminine  neuter  plural
 nominative
 sviež-y  sviež-a  sviež-e  sviež-i
 genitive  sviež-ego  sviež-ej  sviež-ego  sviež-ih
 dative  sviež-emu  sviež-ej  sviež-emu  sviež-im
 accusative  sviež-ego
 sviež-u  sviež-e  sviež-e
 vocative  sviež-y  sviež-a
 sviež-e
 sviež-i
 locative  sviež-em  sviež-ej  sviež-em  sviež-ih
 instrumental  sviež-im  sviež-ej  sviež-im  sviež-imi


gradation

Adjectives have the same system of gradation as in English in three stages: indicative, comparative and superlative. Moreover in addition, there is the augmentative as the possibility to amplify the property in indicative.

  1. indicative
    This is the standard form of an adjective.

    example: dragy, sviežy = dear, fresh.


  2. comparative
    This the higher level of property made by endings -iejšy, -iejša, -iejše, -iejši or
    -ejšy, -ejša, -ejše, -ejši after palatalized consonants č, š, ž. When comparing, the genitive case and the preposition ot = from is used.

    example: sviežejšy ot togo = fresher (more fresh) than this.


  3. superlative
    This the absolute level of p
    roperty made by prefix naj- added to the comparative form. When comparing, the genitive case and the preposition iz = from is used.

    example: najdražejšy iz vsih ljudij = the most dear/valuable from all people.


  4. augmentative
    This is the augmented form of the indicative
    made by prefix naj- added to the indicative form. It is used for example in a respectful salutation.

    example: najdragy gospodi! = (very) dear Sir!


descriptive gradation

Like in English we can also use descriptive gradation. Unlike English, however, the basic form of gradation is applicable to all kinds of adjectives. This descriptive gradation is made by adding adverbs vyše, najvyše (higher, the highest) or bolje, najbolje (bigger, the biggest). Both have exactly the same meaning as "more, the most" in English. The augmentative can be expressed using the adverb mnogo (much, many, a lot of, plenty of).

example:
  1. dragy
  2. dražejšy = vyše dragy = bolje dragy
  3. najdražejšy = najvyše dragy = najbolje dragy
  4. najdragy = mnogo dragy


irregular gradation

Although Neoslavonic is an artificial language, it can not exist without irregular adjectives. They are present in all Slavic languages. The Neoslavonic has only five of them:

 indicative 
 
 comparative 
 veliky  big, great 
 bolšy
 dobry  good  lučšy
 blagy  pleasant, joyfull 
 unšy
 maly  small  menšy
 zly  bad, evil
 goršy

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